Tagged: copyright

CJEU sheds light on liability for operators of open Wi-Fi networks (Case C-484/14 Mc Fadden v Sony Music)

By Bernd Justin Jütte

One week after the Court of Justice (CJEU) handed down its Judgment in GS Media (see for a comment here), it has ruled on another important copyright case. In Mc Fadden v Sony Music the Court followed the Opinion of AG Szpunar (see for comment on this blog here) to a large extent while disagreeing on two crucial points. It decided that the operator of an open wireless network provides an ‘information society service’ (ISS) within the meaning of Article 14 E-Commerce Directive if he provides access to the network as part of his economic activities. This means he can avail himself of the liability exemption laid down in that provision. However, the operator of a wireless network can be required to protect the network with a password in order to deter users from infringing the rights of copyright holders. The Court further decided that the right holder can claim from network operators the costs related to an injunction (e.g. to prevent future infringements), but not the costs related to claims for primary infringements of copyrights by the users of the Wi-Fi network. Continue reading

Dirty links, porn previews without permission (Opinion of AG Wathelet in C-160/15, GS Media v Sanoma)

By Justin Jütte

Hyperlinking is one of the most important mechanisms that make the Internet workable and helps users to find and access information more easily. However, hyperlinking has come under scrutiny in the light of the provisions of the EU copyright rules. In the present case, the CJEU is being asked under which circumstances links to infringing material constitute a communication to the public. The request for a preliminary ruling by the Hoge Raad der Nederlanden (Supreme Court of the Netherlands) is part of a growing body of case-law on the interpretation of Article 3(1) of the InfoSoc Directive (Directive 2001/29/EC). This post discusses the AG’s interpretation of the right of communication to the public in relation material which is made available on the Internet without the consent of the rightholder. Continue reading

Limited liability for free Wi-Fi access (Case C-484/14, Mc Fadden v Sony Music)

By Justin Jütte

The civil liability of intermediary service providers remains a hotly debated topic in EU law, especially in relation to infringement of intellectual property rights (IPRs). Whereas the Information Society Directive (Directive 2001/29/EC), as well the IP Enforcement Directive (2004/48/EC) provide that owners of IPRs can, in principle, request injunctions against intermediaries, the E-Commerce Directive (Directive 2000/31/EC) exempts certain intermediaries from indirect liability under certain, well defined circumstances. The present case raises questions as to the scope and interpretation of Article 12 of the E-Commerce Directive, in particular with regard to fundamental rights. Concretely, the referring court in Tobias Mc Fadden v Sony Music Entertainment Germany GmbH asks under which circumstances and to what extent operators of publicly accessible Wi-Fi networks can be held liable for infringements of works protected by copyright, and what type of injunctions can be ordered against such operators.

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C-406/10 SAS Institute v. World Programming Ltd (WPL)

The ECJ issued an important ruling last week regarding how far copyright protection for software should extend.

The case involves two software development companies: SAS and WPL. SAS Institute developed a set of computer programs used for data analysis (the ‘SAS System’) that allows users to write and run their own Scripts in an SAS-specific programming language (para. 24).

WPL developed a competing program called the World Programming System that sought to emulate the SAS System as close as possible. In the process, it obtained a license to the “Learning Edition” of the SAS program and manuals, which it studied, but did not access or copy the SAS source code. The World Programming System is written in the SAS Language, and is designed to allow the use of Scripts originally written for the SAS System (para. 25)…

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Opinion of Advocate General Jääskinen in Case C-5/11 Donner

The case I wish to highlight in this post is the Opinion of Advocate General Jääskinen in Case C-5/11 Donner, concerning a rather crafty and ingenious attempt by Mr. Donner to circumvent the application of certain German copyright laws. Mr. Donner sold various types of ‘Bauhaus’ furniture which was protected by German copyright, but not protected by Italian copyright. Although Mr Donner targeted German customers through advertisements in Germany and a website in German, he sold these products not in Germany but from a warehouse in Italy through cooperation with an Italian company called Dimensione. Those products could nonetheless be delivered optionally to German customers by the Italian company Imspem (owned by Mr. Donner).

One of the questions the Advocate General answers in this case is whether the conduct of Mr. Donner leads to ‘distribution to the public’, that is the German public, within the meaning of the Copyright Directive. Mr. Donner, of course, considers that these products were distributed to the public in Italy, not in Germany. The Copyright Directive provides in Article 4(1) that ‘Member States shall provide for authors, in respect of the original of their works or of copies thereof, the exclusive right to authorise or prohibit any form of distribution to the public by sale or otherwise’. The Advocate General considers that the products were distributed to the public in Germany:

55.      In the situation of cross border distance selling arrangements, the assessment of whether copies are made available to the public in the Member State where enforcement of copyright is sought must be based on the criteria elaborated by the Court in L’Oréal and Others. (38) If a seller targets consumers in a given Member State and creates or makes available to them a specific delivery arrangement and method of payment that enables consumers to purchase copies of copyright protected works in that Member State, then there is distribution by sale in that Member State. (39) The existence of a German language website, the content of Dimensione’s marketing material, and their sustained cooperation with Inspem, as an undertaking engaged in sales and delivery to Germany, all point toward a targeted exercise. What is important is whether the seller has created a targeted sales and delivery channel for buyers to acquire works that are copyright protected in the buyer’s Member State.

56.      In this respect the way the delivery of the copies is organised is of secondary importance. There is distribution by sale from Member State A to the targeted public in Member State B even if under the distribution scheme the copies of the works are delivered by mail or a distribution service. But the extent of the involvement of the carrier in the selling arrangement affects the question whether the carrier is to be considered as a participant in the distribution scheme or merely an intermediary referred to in Article 8(3) of the Copyright Directive, (40) whose services are used by a third party. Such an intermediary may be made subject to injunctions, but not to sanctions under Article 8(1) of the Copyright Directive and the corresponding provision in Article 11 of the Enforcement Directive.

Cases C-162/10 Phonographic Performance (Ireland) Limited (PPL), and C-135/10 Società Consortile Fonografici (SCF)

Last week, the ECJ released two judgments regarding the issue of copyrights on music broadcasts. According to EU law (specifically, Directive 2006/115), artists have a right to remuneration when recordings of their work are communicated to the public. But what exactly does ‘communication to the public’ entail?

In the PPL case, an Irish court asked the ECJ for a preliminary ruling to clarify whether ‘communication to the public’ includes broadcasts by a hotel to guests in hotel bedrooms, and whether Ireland was therefore in violation of European law when it exempted hotels from paying remuneration for these broadcasts. In the SCF case, an Italian court asked the ECJ to clarify whether ‘communication to the public’ includes background music played by a dentist in a dental practice.

The Court held that determining whether the hotel’s or the dentist’s broadcasts were ‘communication to the public’ would require an individual, case-specific analysis focused on three overlapping factors:

  • the role of the user, which engages in ‘communication’ when it intervenes to give access to a protected work
  • the concept of the public, which refers to an “indeterminate number of potential listeners” and “implies a fairly large number of persons”
  • whether the communication is of a profit-making nature, as judged by whether the user benefits, whether the user targets the public, and whether the public is receptive in some way, rather than merely listening by chance

While both the hotel and the dentist were ‘users’ engaging in communication, the ECJ found that the two situations differed with respect to the second and third criteria. The hotel’s customers were a ‘public’ because they were of ‘indeterminate number’ and were ‘a fairly large number of persons’ (PPL, paras. 41-42). The dentist’s clients, on the other hand, were not a ‘public’ because they formed a consistent, determinate group, and because only a small number would be present in the office listening to the broadcast at the same time (SCF, paras. 95-96). Similarly, the hotel’s broadcast was of a ‘profit-making nature’ because it was “an additional service which has an influence on the hotel’s standing and, therefore, on the price of its rooms” and “is likely to attract additional guests who are interested in that additional service” (PPL, para. 44). The dentist’s broadcast, on the other hand, was not of a ‘profit-making nature’ because the dentist “cannot reasonably either expect a rise in the number of patients because of that broadcast alone or increase the price of the treatment he provides” and because the patients are not ‘receptive’, but rather listen to the music merely by chance (SCF, paras. 97-98).

As a result, the dentist is not making a ‘communication to the public’ and is not required to pay remuneration. The hotel, however, is making such a communication, and is required to pay remuneration. According to the ECJ, therefore, Ireland should not have exempted hotels from this requirement.

Copyright for football league fixture lists?

Here is a nice judgment of the Court for football fans. Have you ever wondered why English  Premier League match fixtures on the internet are made unavailable while other fixtures are? The reason is that the FA and Football Dataco think these fixture lists are protected by copyright. For some of us that does not seem to make any sense: especially on the continent copyright is a property right rewarded because of creativity, not managing an agenda (no matter how difficult and laborous that can be). Football Dataco and the FA thought otherwise, emphasizing the very significant labour and skill that went into creating match fixtures for football matches in England and Scotland.

The FA and Football Dataco  got into a legal battle with Yahoo and other companies over this. The Court of Appeal subsequently referred the case to the Court to ask whether article 3(1) of the Copyright Directive (Directive 96/9/EC) granted copyright to the creators of annual match fixtures. The Court answered that ‘no other criteria than that of the originality is to be applied to determine the eligibility of a database for copyright protection’:

41      Therefore, on the one hand, provided that the selection or arrangement of the data ­– namely, in a case such as the one in the main proceedings, data corresponding to the date, the time and the identity of teams relating to the different fixtures of the league concerned (see paragraph 26 of the present judgment) ­– is an original expression of the creativity of the author of the database, it is irrelevant for the purpose of assessing the eligibility of the database for the copyright protection provided for by Directive 96/9 whether or not that selection or arrangement includes ‘adding important significance’ to that data, as mentioned in section (b) of the referring court’s first question.

42      On the other hand, the fact that the setting up of the database required, irrespective of the creation of the data which it contains, significant labour and skill of its author, as mentioned in section (c) of that same question, cannot as such justify the protection of it by copyright under Directive 96/9, if that labour and that skill do not express any originality in the selection or arrangement of that data.

Consequently:

–        the intellectual effort and skill of creating that data are not relevant in order to assess the eligibility of that database for protection by that right;

–        it is irrelevant, for that purpose, whether or not the selection or arrangement of that data includes the addition of important significance to that data, and

–        the significant labour and skill required for setting up that database cannot as such justify such a protection if they do not express any originality in the selection or arrangement of the data which that database contains.

It is now up to the Court of Appeal to determine whether creating annual match fixtures is an original expression of the creativity of Football Dataco or not.