Two separate insurance companies Allianz and Generali concluded a number of contracts with autorepair shops on the prices and other conditions that would apply for cars insured by these companies repaired by those shops. Moreover, Allianz and Generali also concluded similar contracts with the dealers who operated car repair shops. Finally, they concluded similar agreements with the association of car dealers. In this category of agreement, the prices for car repairs would increase with the number of insurances sold by the dealers. Allianz and Generali, therefore sought to link the number of insurances sold by the dealers to the remuneration for car repairs. This is obviously designed to increase or at least consolidate the market share of Allianz and Generali on the market for car insurances. Apart from this business strategy, the idea behind these agreements was that auto repair shops could start repairing immediately on the basis of the predetermined tariffs, something that is clearly a practical solution to get people back on the road as quickly as possible.
The Hungarian Competition Authority (referred to in the judgment as GVH; HCA hereafter), however, considered these agreements to restrict competition by object on the market for car insurance contracts and the market for car repair services within the meaning of the Hungarian equivalent of Article 101 TFEU. As it happens, this provision closely mimics Article 101 TFEU, in line with the trend towards a spontaneous harmonisation of competition law throughout the EU (see the preamble and explanatory memorandum to the Hungarian competition act referred to in paragraphs 3 and 5 of the judgement). Because the HCA considered that there was no effect on trade, Article 101 TFEU was not applied by the national competition authority. The prohibition decision issued by the HCA was challenged by Allianz, in particular on the grounds that the agreement did not restrict competition by object. the decision by the HCA was partially reversed and then restored upon appeal, against which Allianz appealed to the Hungarian Supreme Court. The Supreme Court then made a preliminary reference essentially asking whether the agreements at hand fall within the object category.